Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures for Lunar Security

Eliminating mistrust and building confidence between states is crucial now more than ever, with lunar ambitions emerging from different nations simultaneously. TCBMs will be critical to preserve security on the Moon and ensure that activities continue to be conducted “exclusively for peaceful purposes”.


This report was written by Nivedita Raju within her research fellowship with the Open Lunar Foundation. The fellowship also included a primer on TCBMs for the Moon in the form of a blog post which you can find here. This report is a deep dive into challenges and possible opportunities for action. This report is not reflective of a policy position, this reflects our support for this effort to create TCBMs specific to lunar needs.


Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures or “TCBMs” refer to political tools or mechanisms aimed at stabilizing security. References to the term frequently appear in discussions on space security, with dedicated initiatives to develop TCBMs evident at the multilateral level. TCBMs may also be adopted in unilateral and bilateral forms. This paper proposes specific TCBMs to enhance lunar security. The proposal to adopt TCBMs solely for lunar security is based on the premise that Article IV of the Outer Space Treaty distinguishes between security for outer space in general and security for the Moon, reflected in the mandated use for “exclusively peaceful purposes.” This report argues that lunar TCBMs will play a significant role in strengthening relationships between lunar stakeholders and enforce compliance with Article IV of the Outer Space Treaty.

The report is divided into three sections. Part I presents an overview of TCBMs for outer space and substantiates the need for TCBMs specifically for lunar activities. Part II introduces the measures themselves. Part III then considers potential institutions to implement said measures.

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